R&D(research and development)

Chronic kidney disease (CKD or CRD)

Based on the severity of CKD, it can be divided into 5 stages. ACE inhibitors or ARBs are the current standard of care for CKD patients. However, CKD can still progress under such medications. Stage 5 is also called end-stage renal disease or end-stage renal failure with poor life expectancy. Costly dialysis or kidney transplant is the best therapeutic option for end-stage renal disease.

It is indicated that 13% of US adults have diabetes and 30% of additional adults are at high risk for developing diabetes. The prevalence of CKD, characterized by either albuminuria or reduced kidney function is >40% among adults with a diagnosis of diabetes (http://www.docin.com/p-52047054.html) In addition, about 24.6% of people with hypertension have hypertensive nephropathy. Hypertension also contributed significantly to the increasing number of patients undergoing dialysis from renal insufficiency (http://wikidoc.org/index.php/Hypertensive_nephropathy_epidemiology_and_demographics)

Irespective of the original cause, every CKD is a progression of renal fibrosis, i.e. the excessive accumulation of collagen. It is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Scientific findings suggests that TGF-beta signaling pathway is implicated in the renal fibrosis process. Both Etuary® and F351 are TGF-beta signaling pathway inhibitors are have been shown in various animal models to inhibit lung, liver, and renal fibrosis. They represent promising new therapeutic approaches for CKD.